Atresia literarily means closure or absent of something. Pulmonary atresia, therefore, means closure, absent or underdevelopment of the pulmonary valves. Normally, the pulmonary Artery & Valve carries deoxygenated (oxygen-deprived) blood from the body to the Lungs for oxygenation. In P.A the valve is blocked and cannot send blood for oxygenation in the lungs, therefore deoxygenated blood is in the circulation, and the manifestation of that is a bluish discolouration of the body.


Physiologically, the body in order to get oxygenation finds another route. The Ductus arteriosus which closes immediately after birthday can remain open to allow blood to enter the lungs for oxygenation or another hole VSD exists.

Pulmonary Atresia might result from undeveloped Right Ventricle, the Valve may be totally absent or cannot open.



Pulmonary Atresia with VSD: this is similar to Tetralogy of Fallot

Pulmonary Atresia with intact ventricular Septum



Signs and symptoms





Treatment depends on patient presentation and severity which are in stages. There are stages of treatment

Good news: treatment is available in Nigeria.

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