AVSD is a spectrum of cardiac malformation characterized by abnormal development of the AV junction or endocardial cushion tissue. It is commonly associated with Trisomy 21, a chromosomal abnormality. Mainly, the presence of 5 leaflets common AV valve characterizes this disease.
There is partial AVSD with ostium premium ASD, 2 separate valve orifice, no VSD OR Complete AVSD with ostium premium ASD, single valve orifice and inlet VSD.
There is intracardiac shunting (diversion) between Atrium and Ventricle or from the ventricle to the atrium, causing pressure or volume overload in the Cardiac chamber.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
- Increase respiratory rate (tachypnea)
- Frequent chest infection
- Poor growth/ failure to thrive
- Chest x-ray showing increased pulmonary vascular marking and cardiomegaly
- Cardiac catheterization
Open heart Surgery, AVSD repair is advised within 3_6 months of life, however, surgery can be done after this period. Surgical approach depends on patients whether it’s a partial or complete VSD.